Apples are more widely grown than any other fruit. Some apples are produced specifically for processing, but most of the apples, in average of 20 percent, that are grown for the fresh market are also used in processing, due to their excellent juice and possibility of superior sauce production.
Apples are processed into a variety of products, but by far the largest volume of processed apple products is in the form of cider and vinegar. Production starts with crushing of apples and squeezing out the liquid. Then a natural fermentation process undergo or bacteria and yeast can be added to start the alcoholic fermentation process, and the sugars are turned into alcohol.
Once the apples are harvested and washed, the fruit is crushed and pressed. The remaining juice is fermented, creating cider.
The juice may also be fermented to produce hard cider. In a second fermentation process, the alcohol is converted into vinegar by acetic acid-forming bacteria (acetobacter). Acetic acid and malic acid give vinegar its sour taste.
Apple cider vinegar is a type of vinegar made from cider or apple must with a pale to medium amber color. Unpasteurized or organic cider vinegar contains mother of vinegar, which has a cobweb-like appearance and can make the vinegar look slightly congealed. The waste left after pressing, known as pomace, is sold for cattle feed.
For over thousands of years, ever since the ‘father of medicine’, Hippocrates, used vinegar as a therapeutic remedy, the golden liquid has gained immense popularity worldwide, for treating a multitude of diseases. Besides this, the acetic apple cider vinegar has also been effective for other household purposes like cleaning, used in salad dressings, marinades, vinaigrettes, food preservatives and removing stains. This humble kitchen ingredient can also make a valuable addition to list of beauty products, that helps keep skin radiantly soft and spotless, due to the presence of skin friendly substances such as vitamins C, A and B, boron, iron, copper silicon, phosphorous, magnesium, calcium, beta-carotene and heart friendly pectin.